The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Lesbian dating nearest Casula, New South Wales. Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not essential) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and significant) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to happen in on-line than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference classes, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was evident between UAI and online partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Characteristics of online and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with internet partners.
To be able to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating location and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adjusted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was contained in all three models by making a new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-oblivious men. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant associations. As a rather large number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this strategy does lead to an elevated risk of one or more false positive organizations. Investigations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Before the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. Lesbian Dating nearest Casula New South Wales. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related material use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and venture sexual behavior by online or offline venture, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to measure the significance of a variable in a model.
In order to explore potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the response alternatives: (1) no, (2) maybe, (3) yes. Sexual behavior with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or merely protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I am certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner with the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar response alternatives as previously. Lesbian dating in Casula New South Wales Australia. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final category represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation using a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual conduct with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of recognizing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this investigation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partly clarified through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
A meta-evaluation in 2006 found limited evidence that acquiring a sex partner online increases the risk of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared guys with internet partners to men with offline partners. Nevertheless, guys preferring online dating might differ in various unmeasured respects from guys preferring offline dating, causing incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis included several studies analyzing MSM with both online and also offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and online partners, which would suggest a mediating effect of more information on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13 Lesbian dating in Casula, NSW.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use the Net to locate sex partners. Several research have revealed that MSM are more likely to participate in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (on-line) than with partners they meet at social places (offline) 1 - 3 This suggests that men who acquire partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with on-line partners, the danger of HIV transmission also depends upon precise knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
Five hundred seventy-seven guys (351 HIV-negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of ventures). Adjusted for demographic characteristics, online dating had no significant effect on UAI among HIV-negative and HIV status-unaware guys, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with on-line associates (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for associate and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM was reduced and no longer essential.
Believe it or not, I didn't come out of this experiment feeling terrible about myself---simply smarter about the way gay men (or perhaps guys in general) area way too much emphasis on stupid characteristics like beards and ballcaps (hint: that's why you are all still cranky and single). And really, I do not believe having long hair itself is the huge hang up; it is what my hair implies. Having long hair (particularly for a black man) means you're likely a bitchy stunning queen that nobody needs to date. Lesbian Dating near Casula NSW. Even in the event the assumption is not that extreme, the inherent fear is you spent too much time on your look and that is not manly." That's frustrating, of course, since stereotypical masculinity requires just as much work---we just don't think of it that way. I remember chatting with this scruffy, fairly muscular guy with tattoos and torso hair and an Instagram full of masc pics; once we got to speaking, he shown his fixation with Beyonc and said yasss!" every other paragraph. But no matter---his graphic is butch, so his dating life is always full.
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